1. IRIDESCENT (adjective): इंद्रधनुषी
Meaning: Showing luminous colors that seem to change when seen from different
Synonyms: shining, glittering, sparkling, shimmering, polychromatic, opalescent
Antonyms: colorless, dull, plain, fixed, monochrome
Usage: When the jeweler looked at the iridescent gems, he was made speechless by their brilliant colors.
2. THROWAWAY (adjective) : अस्थायी
Meaning: Denoting or relating to products that are intended to be discarded after being
used once or a few times.
Synonyms: casual, passing, careless, offhand, ill-considered
Antonyms: adopt, embrace, take on, keep, retain, conserve
Usage: She was very upset at what to him was just a throwaway remark.
3. PRUNE (verb) : छटना, छँटाई करना
Meaning: Trim (a tree, shrub, or bush) by cutting away dead or overgrown branches or stems, especially to encourage growth.
Synonyms: reduce, cut/trim, decrease.
Antonyms: elongate, extend, lengthen
Usage: Ideally, you should start pruning your tree to limit its size before it reaches full size.
4. STRIDE (noun) : प्रगति, छलांग
Meaning: A long step or stage in making progress.
Synonyms: clump, tramp, stomp, stalk
Antonyms: amble, meander, ramble, stroll, wander
Usage: In two bounding strides the woman was in the street, kneeling over her friend.
5. VEXATIOUS (adjective) : अफ़सोसनाक
Meaning: Causing or tending to cause annoyance, frustration, or worry.
Synonyms: annoying, vexing, irritating, irksome, displeasing, infuriating, maddening, exasperating
Antonyms: helpful, pleasing, soothing, aiding, assisting
Usage: This vexatious problem was resolved, incompletely, by civil war and secession.
6. STODGY (adjective) : सुस्त और उदासीन; मौलिकता या उत्तेजना की कमी
Meaning: Dull and uninspired; lacking originality or excitement
Synonyms: uninteresting, dreary, deadly, unimaginative, uninspired, unexciting, monotonous, humdrum
Antonyms: exciting, entertaining, digestible, creative, breathtaking, enthralling
Usage: Most of my students used informal, asymmetrical balance, as formal balance can seem stodgy and dull.
7. PURPORTEDLY (adverb) : कथित रूप से
Meaning: As appears or is stated to be true, though not necessarily so; allegedly.
Synonyms: allegedly, professedly, supposedly, seemingly, superficially
Antonyms: absolutely, authentically, certainly, earnestly, exactly
Usage: The woman found a letter purportedly signed by the Prime Minister.
8. AMELIORATE (verb) : सुधारना
Meaning: make (something bad or unsatisfactory) better
Synonyms: better, reformed, revamped/improved, amend, elevate
Antonyms: worsen, aggravate, decline, blemish, debase, deprave
Usage: Ameliorate the relationship with your distant mother by sending a letter.
9. STARK (adjective) : निरा
Meaning: Unpleasantly or sharply clear.
Synonyms: blunt, bare, straightforward, plain, unadorned, unembellished, harsh, grim
Antonyms: adorned, bright, lush, bleak, cheerful, opulent
Usage: His evidence in chief stood in stark contrast to his evidence on cross-examination.
10. TOUCHSTONE (noun) : मापदंड
Meaning: a criterion by which something is judged
Synonyms: benchmark, criterion, grade, mark, measure, metric, standard, yardstick
Antonyms: aberration, deviation, abnormality
Usage: An understanding of grammar is often considered a touchstone by which all language skills are compared to.